The Free Radical Theory was first introduced by Rebeca Gerschman in 1954 and developed by Dr. Denham Harmon of the University of Nebraska College of Medicine.

●      The theory proposed that molecules with unpaired electrons (aka “free radicals”) steal electrons from healthy cells in order to balance out their unstable electrical charge, disrupting cellular metabolism leading to cell death and ultimately causing damage to organs and systems
●      Free radicals are produced in the body in the normal process of living and generally speaking do not cause damage at normal levels
●      Excessive free radical formation can cause damage to tissues
●      Exposure to dietary and environmental factors can increase free radical formation and damage, for example:
heavy metal poisoning, exposure to sunlight, excessive exercise, pesticides, alcohol, cigarette smoke, eating rancid or trans fats, and ionizing radiation.
As part of normal metabolism and environmental exposure, free radicals and oxidative stress ‘fan the fire’ of inflammation and age-related diseases.
Muscadine is uniquely positioned to provide potent and broad-spectrum antioxidant protection.
Muscadine grapes are one of nature’s most potent antioxidant fruits that may support the body’s natural resistance to environmental stress factors. 

Muscadine antioxidants have shown very high antioxidant activity scores, using ORAC. Muscadines may provide a superior amount and diversity of antioxidants, compared to many other fruits.
Muscadines’ whole-food synergy was confirmed when studies found it may stimulate both types of antioxidant defenses in the body — exogenous and endogenous. (Most antioxidants only support a limited number of antioxidant pathways).

●      40 times the antioxidant power of table grapes
●      6 times the resveratrol of table grapes
●      The only grape with ellagic acid and ellagitannins
●      Abundant levels of flavonoids, including quercetin

Muscadines are very high in antioxidant capacity relative to other antioxidants. This data, along with the limited clinical evidence, supports strong antioxidant claims for muscadine:

Whole Muscadine Fruit Extract – 23,000
Muscadine Seed Extract – 17,000
Grape Seed Extract (Conventional) – 11,000
Whole Muscadine  Fruit Powder – 3,000
Muscadine Fruit Skin – 5,000
Muscadine Seed – 4,000
Muscadine Juice Concentrate – 4,000
Acai powder – 1027
Bilberry, dried – 500
Blueberry juice – 24
Concord grape juice – 24
Grape juice, red – 18
Grapes – fresh black – 17
Grapes – fresh red – 18
Green tea, brewed – 13

Total ORAC Data from USDA ORAC Database (2010). The cited 2010 data for Total ORAC was separated into 2 assays: hydrophilic and lipophilic. Muscadine ORAC data is the sum of six ORAC subtests.
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